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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

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SECTION XXIIIa.—General view.—As far as the iron industry is concerned, the term Great Britain embraces only England, Wales and Southern Scotland.    These divisions cover an area equal to Pennsylvania and Ohio combined, but embrace three or four times as great a population.   The pig-iron production of Great Britain in 1904 was 8,563,000 tons, while the two States mentioned made 10,622,000 tons.   In both cases a great part of the ore was brought a long distance by water, to England by the ocean and to Pennsylvania by the Lakes, but Great Britain was compelled to find a foreign market for nearly half her product, while the home demand in America took care of all but a small proportion of the output. Fig. XXIII-A shows the districts into which the country may be conveniently divided, the statistics being from the Home Office Ee-ports.   Lack of room makes it difficult to locate the squares exactly as the statistics would require; it must, therefore, be remembered that Barrow is in Lancashire, and hence the product of the Barrow Steel Works is included -in the lines shown in the southern portion of the county.   The map is a general guide, but not an accurate diagram.   The statistics on the map are for 1899, but later figures are given in Table XXIII-B.
Fig. XXIII-B shows the coal fields of Great Britain.* Most of the coal gives a good coke, that of Durham being noted for its excellent quality. In 1903 the exports of coal were 44,950,057 tons, of which 19,881,773 tons came from South Wales, 15,535,557 tons from the Northeast Coast, and 7,174,366 tons from Scotland, these three districts supplying 96 per cent, of all the coal exported. There were 717,477 tons of coke sent over sea, and of this South Wales contributed 102,244 tons, Scotland 59,210 tons, while the Northeast Coast shipped 463,351 tons. The Durham district, there-
* Let Charbons Britainques; Loze; Paris, 1900. 496